Please do not think that the information shared here is just for the people living in the “United States”. Perhaps, you do not fully grasp the meaning of this term, “United States”. All of my articles are designed to inform people so that they can learn from my mistakes and take advantage of my “awakening” experiences and take advantage of my 20 years of research.
As children, we ask questions before we come to a “conclusion” about the information that is being recorded by our senses. Why as adults do we accept what is being told to us without first investigating the information so that there is truly “informed consent”.
Do we really think that what we are experiencing is normal?
Do we want to go back to “normal”?
What will it take for people to wake up to the fact, “there was nothing normal about how we were doing life “pre COVID19”.
Why do people say, “most people do not like to read”?!
What will it take to inspire people to take an interest in educating themselves?
If we do not educate ourselves how can we properly educate our children?
Would it be to our advantage to know how the “monetary system” and the “taxation system” work?
Life would change very quickly if everyone would watch this video: THE OCCULT ART OF LAW
Are people aware that we are being manipulated through “contracting”. If the world we are experiencing has a foundation in contracting then we should know the “terms” of the contracts we are signing so we are finalizing an informed contract. Have we really consented to a contract if we do not know what we have consented to?
Do you really know the hidden meaning behind the terms of the contract you are signing?
Besides being manipulated becasue we do not knowing the “terms” of the contract(s) we are signing we are unconscoiusness being controlld as a result of our unconscious belieds so that our emotions are being used to hijack us. Why can we be “blackmailed” to protect our family and completely ignore the people’s lives our decisions are having on others? And besides being motivated by emotions
What will it take to inspire people so that they are willing to self-educate, how can we take appropriate steps forward if we are not learned in how the world works or our place in the working of our world? Do we have an interest in taking steps towards a sustainable world? Am inviting everyone to become a member of the Lawful Living Community and learn the information you have never heard before. It is free to become a member and there is lots of information shared in the community groups. There are classes by donation and it is $200 for the family yearly rate to gain access to all the classes offered on the site. And there are zoom meetings on Tuesday and Thursday at noon and all members of the public are welcome to join the meetings, in other words, “you do not have to be a member of the Lawful Living Community to join the zoom meetings”..
They are designed to assist people with their unique situations. Come and join this group of highly motivated, highly intelligent, kind, and loving people that are taking real steps towards freedom and towards a sustainable world. Some of the classes offered are Private Ministerial Action Process, Mortgage Free, BC & SSN, traffic Blocking, Money Talk, Beat The BAR, etc… There is plenty of “free” information under the “Community” group and also the “Friends In Law’.
The Zoom log in for the Tuesday and Thursday calls is 838-217-4471
Below is the link to the recording from Tuesday’s call it is full of gems that everyone will benefit from. Not sure if you can listen to the recording without being a member and logging into the site.. www.lawfulliving.com
What do you have to lose? https://www.lawfulliving.com/posts/5516
Here are the comments by the members on the call during the live zoom meeting on March 2, 2021!!!
1.02 Definitions in Revised Code.As used in the Revised Code, unless the context otherwise requires:(A) “#Whoever” includes all #persons, natural and artificial; partners; principals, #agents, and #employees; and **all officials**, public or private.1.59 Statutory #definitions.As used in any #statute, unless another definition is provided in that statute or a related statute:(A) “#Child” includes child by adoption.(B) “#Oath” includes affirmation, and “swear” includes affirm.(C) “Person” includes an #individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, and association.http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/gp15 U.S. Code § 552a – Records maintained on individuals(a)Definitions.—For purposes of this section—(1)the term “#agency” means agency as defined in section 552(e)  of this title;(2)the term “#individual” means a #citizen of the #UnitedStates or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence;https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/5/552aSection 210.22 #Pretrial and #prearbitration#conference.After the filing of a notice of trial and certificate of readiness in any action, the judge shall order such pretrial and prearbitration conferences as required by the needs of the court. The attendance of attorneys who are familiar with the case and who are authorized to act shall be required. The court may also require the attendance of parties and, in the event of failure of attendance by attorneys or parties, the court shall have the same powers with respect to dismissals, defaults, or both as it might exercise when a case is reached for trial. Upon the pretrial of an action, the judge shall consider with counsel and parties the simplification and limitation of the issues and the obtaining of admissions of facts and of documents to avoid unnecessary proof, as well as the ultimate disposition of the action by settlement or compromise…. If the plaintiff, or an attorney in his or her behalf, **does not appear **at the time set for hearing, the court may #dismiss the claim for #wantofprosecution or enter a finding on the merits for the defendant, or make such other disposition as it may deem proper.http://ww2.nycourts.gov/rules/trialcourts/210.shtml#14
12:00:22 From @Wendi Niccole : hey!
12:02:35 From @Skenny Street : Hello Kings and Queens
12:07:58 From @tabyny24 : I haven’t Hurd nothing from them after I sent them the default judgment they all went silent
12:13:39 From @kiesha pink : peace people hope all is well
12:17:12 From Liberty-Marie : hey family!
12:31:26 From @The Richmang(Oaxaco) : Peace
12:34:00 From Kiesha Pink : yes she is correct
12:34:07 From @Hamilton Elbey : Peace and love everyone.. I’m just observing..
12:35:06 From @bey.aryeh : that’s the moorish zodiac constitution in library of #congress
12:37:05 From @Najima Sachi El (Niyshia) : https://www.govinfo.gov/…/USCODE-2011-title22-chap2.htm
12:38:43 From Tabitha’s iphone : my son told me his dad said your mom wasted her time putting all them paperwork in the court because it didnâ€™t do anything what do you think about that Malika
12:41:36 From Liberty-Marie : quo warranto
12:42:04 From Tabitha’s iphone : yup
12:44:13 From Aryeh Mykha-El: Bey : they are actors
12:45:19 From Hamilton Elbey : Senate 93-549
12:47:25 From Hamilton Elbey : Google search it
12:55:57 From Tabitha’s iphone : yup I was reading this one case they put this guy that was in prison 18 years they said ow they made a mistake and gave him 40,000 thousand for the mistake 18 years of his life gone12:59:48 From Skenny @WealthTable : Hale v. Henkel, 201 U.S. 43 (1906) ???
13:05:13 From Hamilton Elbey : Wowww
13:06:33 From @david.brister69 : What is with so much drama from him?
13:07:04 From @andreawoman : why is he so bent on being here? yikes
13:07:37 From Andrea’s iPhone : yikes..
13:07:52 From Andrea’s iPhone : thank you for clarifying
13:08:09 From @AHYOKABEY : predator alerts.are very important
13:08:23 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : ive heard that before about him
13:08:37 From Skenny @WealthTable : what about his information
13:08:51 From David Brister : WOOOOOOW
13:10:04 From Andrea’s iPhone : exactly nun-ah-ur-bizness lol
13:24:42 From David Brister : What is that sound?????
13:25:33 From David Brister : Just you
13:26:00 From iPhone : i double tap the screen
13:26:23 From @jusjoe : thank you iphone. lol
13:27:21 From Hamilton Elbey : I use Black’s Law Dictionary 6th Edition. If you are using their terms from their books, it is much less likely that they can call your docs frivolous or vexatious don’t you think?
13:34:56 From Tabitha’s iphone : is it the same for the dumb deputies too
13:35:45 From David Brister : Pre-cogs told the Policy officers
13:36:12 From Hamilton Elbey : In order to learn the law you must learn the meaning of the words first!!13:36:16 From Grigori : Everyone wants to be a petty tyrant, especially with the CV19 excuse. People who never had courage/confidence are suddenly empowered. Yeahhhh precrime I swear they take old pulp sci-fi as instruction manuals these days
13:36:21 From King Ray Dale : how do I know your car isn’t stolen pig?
13:36:32 From Brian Krueger : thats good13:39:53 From Hamilton Elbey : The judges wrote those books
13:40:0 From Hamilton Elbey : And definitions
13:42:27 From Grigori : I’ve had them pull me out of my car and into theirs without so much as asking a question first. Not even license or registration. I was so pissed it got me studying this full force
13:44:25 From David Brister : https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/5/2635.101
13:44:38 From Grigori : @David thank you
13:45:06 From David Brister : YW13:48:45 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : what was that malika?
13:48:52 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : she spit that quick
13:49:11 From Liberty-Marie : https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/7701
13:49:13 From Liberty-Marie : (h)13:49:34 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : please type
13:49:56 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : the real ID ACT13:51:45 From Brian Krueger : CUSIP always kills them lol
13:51:56 From Liberty-Marie : Empress…
13:51:57 From Liberty-Marie : https://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/real-id-act-text.pdf
13:54:17 From Galaxy J3 Orbit : ummm…
13:54:24 From Galaxy J3 Orbit : (5)Â Commodity HTSUS number.Â Duty/statistical reporting number under which the article is classified in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS). The HTSUS number must be provided to the six-digit level. The HTSUS number may be provided to the 10-digit level
13:55:00 From Hamilton Elbey : Go to your local law library and ask them for “ruling case law ” look up automobiles
13:55:34 From Galaxy J3 Orbit : different levels of numbers – sounds like multi-jurisdictional…
13:55:40 From Galaxy J3 Orbit : The HTSUS number must be provided to the six-digit level. The HTSUS number may be provided to the 10-digit level.
14:00:46 From The Richmang : love it!!!14:02:15
From Galaxy J3 Orbit : also – things obtained through law library, have “librarian” sign off in notarial capacity…
14:03:46 From Hamilton Elbey : Propitiate
14:05:48 From Hamilton Elbey : Proverbs 1:314:06:07 From Hamilton Elbey : Judge 2:16-18
14:08:53 From King Ray Dale : please don’t take those vaccinesPrivate ministerial Action, Mortgage Free, BC & SSN, but when I click on them. It doesn’t open, Maybe I am doing something wrong. Would you check it out for me.14:10:21 From Grigori : As an acupuncturist, I can’t tell you how often people are taking them with ZERO research. It’s saddening. Hopefully some of them rethink it based on the minimal informational nails in the coffin I mention
14:14:56 From Lady Oya : I gotta run a biological offspring errand. I hate to leave, as always its good and necessary info. If I do not get back in time….thank you and each of you is AMAZING!
14:17:19 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : i got WIC with not giving our social.and my home made birth certificate14:18:35 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : whats the verse
14:18:37 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : gen 214:18:54 From interstellar : Gen 2:714:19:04 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : thanks
14:22:16 From Grigori : One of the best attorneys. He only used the Bible for many winning. Cases.
14:22:30 From Grigori : J W Ehrlich
14:22:37 From Grigori : Ehrlich means honest in German
14:23:27 From Hamilton Elbey : Congratulations
14:29:00 From King Ray Dale : I want to buy Malika an IRS baseball cap
14:29:25 From Empress Ahyoka Bey : anti irs hat lol
14:31:44 From Tabitha’s iphone : oowwww I think them ass holes turned my water off I never got anything in the mail or nothing
14:41:48 From Liberty-Marie : Did you call to see if they have a broken main somewhere?
14:45:57 From Tabitha’s iphone : just got some stuff from both fake courts in mail
14:47:45 From Liberty-Marie : Who did? “You” did?
14:52:52 From interstellar : Propaganda by Edward Barnays: https://archive.org/…/in.ernet.dli…/page/n49/mode/2up
14:53:17 From Skenny : https://www.voltairenet.org/…/Bernays_Propaganda_in…
14:53:34 From Grigori : Thanks for that! Very good to revisit it.
14:53:50 From @Trinity : @Skenny thanks!
14:56:48 From @:Robin-Marie : Colorado 18-3-301. First degree kidnapping(1) Any #person who does any of the following acts with the intent thereby to force the victim or any other person to make any concession or give up anything of value in order to secure a release of a person under the offender’s actual or apparent control commits first degree kidnapping:(a) Forcibly seizes and carries any person from one place to another; or(b) Entices or persuades any person to go from one place to another; or(c) #Imprisons or forcibly secretes any person.(2) Whoever commits first degree kidnapping is guilty of a class 1 #felony if the person #kidnapped shall have suffered bodily injury; but no person convicted of first degree kidnapping shall suffer the death penalty if the person kidnapped was liberated alive prior to the conviction of the kidnapper.(3) Whoever commits first degree kidnapping commits a class 2 felony if, prior to his conviction, the person kidnapped was liberated unharmed.
14:58:09 From Tabitha’s iphone : I got something from fake land lord hahaha14:59:28 From Kiesha Pink : thank you everyone
15:02:31 From Liberty-Marie : Thank you Malika15:02:32 From @harvest : As she says earth is flat , as I say poor Adam lol
15:02:35 From Grigori : I have an extra older iPad if it’d help you access the classes
15:02:41 From Grigori : Hit me up15:02:44 From Aubrey : peace
15:02:52 From Grigori : Happy to donate imaan
15:02:58 From Grigori :
15:02:58 From Lady Oya : Thank you Malika
15:02:59 From W-4 Kimberly : thank you sooo much !
15:02:59 From Mark Austin’s iPad Pro: peace, thanks again Malika, excellent as always
Here is the comments and link to the Thursday March 4, 2021 call:
Chat Comments by attendees of the call: There are #Statues about punishment for impersonating a creditor of the #uUnitedStates but none for impersonating a #debtor, because that's what they need all of us to do! Ha Article I Section 8 Clause 1 The Congress shall have Power... to pay the Debts 31 U.S. Code § 3123.Payment of obligations and interest on the public debt (a)The #faith of the United States Government is pledged #topay, in legal tender, principal and interest on the obligations of the Government 20 CFR § 422.104 Who can be assigned a #socialsecuritynumber. a) Persons eligible for #SSN assignment. We can assign you a social security number... #You means an #individual who owes a #debt to the United States 5 U.S. Code § 552a - Records maintained on individuals (2)the term “ #individual ” means a #citizen of the #UnitedStates or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence; 18 U.S. Code § 912 - #Officer or #employee of the United States #Whoever falsely assumes or pretends to be an officer or employee acting under the authority of the United States or any department, agency or officer thereof, and acts as such... Matthew 18:15-20 King James Version 15 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Chat: 12:07:33 From @mensah_c : That's profound! 12:07:42 From @andreawoman : yes! 12:08:14 From A A : they don't get it.. they don't want to be honorable or put in effort 12:09:20 From A A : exactly.. it's all opposite 12:11:01 From A A : yes and that we fall under the constitution everyone thinks that 12:11:10 From A A : they're confused 12:12:36 From A A : ahh.. I remember you saying offspring aren't qualified to go to public school unless they're going to work for govt 12:13:34 From @sophia-taniah : we do not know what we do not know until it comes to realize what we did not know... ie/I made the mistake of taking action when the people that ie/I was listening to were not educated even though they acted like they were. 12:14:27 From @:Robin-Marie : Happy Friday Eve family!! 12:14:32 From 550349 : did you mention where we should be looking for accurate information? because I'm not trying to waste time and look in the wrong places. your way of thinking makes sense to me and I want to learn all I can 12:15:08 From sophia-taniah : www.lawfulliving.com 12:15:35 From 550349 : I'm encouraging my kids to learn what you're teaching because I want them to have the advantage 12:15:36 From sophia-taniah : good day Robin-Marie 12:15:38 From :Robin-Marie : ^^^excellent answer Sophia! 🙂 12:15:50 From :Robin-Marie : lol my timing is off 12:16:40 From sophia-taniah : 🙂 ❤ my timing has been off for eons ❤ 🙂 12:17:18 From :Robin-Marie : lol mine too. Cuz we've been so indoctrinated! Things are starting to align.... 12:17:52 From A A : Iâ€™m having a problem realizing that I donâ€™t have to correct the record to be private.. I do have a couple contracts with govt that I need to rescind though 12:17:55 From sophia-taniah : getting lined up.... making sure ie/I do not take steps until ie/I have everything lined up and know what is needed to respond appropriately 12:18:11 From :Robin-Marie : very wise! 12:19:48 From A A : totally agree.. the Bible is everything once one realizes.. 12:26:24 From @El Hotepsekhemwy Pero : Greetings all...! 12:26:45 From @kirbybobby : hey Keith made it from the marathon lol 12:28:43 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : yeah - they're going over the UCC as if it is strictly commercial without realizing it is in fact International which means it MUST be ONE OR THE OTHER - Commerce OR Trade... What is a Trade ...? Is it an exchange...? If so; the definition of pay is to exchange ... WHAT is exchanged...? At Any Time it Depends on the words and the Order of the way they are constructed... 12:28:54 From @david.brister69 : gravity... haaaa 12:29:23 From 550349 : no has seen a virus 12:33:06 From sophia-taniah : the ultimate ignorance is to ignore impirical evidence in favor of propaganda 12:33:18 From interstellar : We Secrete mucus to Excrete the virus 12:33:59 From sophia-taniah : everything is the result of frequencies... thoughts and words have a frequency... our body is thought actualized... 12:34:13 From david : I still get in trouble 12:35:06 From 550349 : their "science" is a Cult 12:35:53 From Joel Anderson : whoâ€™s the author of the book what makes us ill 12:37:16 From 550349 : one bone = one picture *one picture+one bone = 1000 words 12:40:15 From sophia-taniah : disease is the result of thoughts that are out of harmony with the body's original template... have you heard of Anita Moorjani? Her body was riddled with cancers as big as lemons... she "died" and went into non-physical and discovered what caused her cancer... "fear actualized". In 5 weeks here tumors vanished and every cell in her body was regenerated. The following is ted talk describing her experience https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhcJNJbRJ6U 12:49:07 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://youtu.be/ZaTuFB5QXHo 12:51:00 From sophia-taniah : They know that what we focus on becomes reality https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1YqgPAtzho 12:51:07 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : Drawing with sound... What say ye - are ye using creative sounds...? 12:51:10 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gibcRfp4zA 12:54:34 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : words and effects on water - our cells... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGapwV3Kw8Q 12:55:26 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : original definition of water is "magneto electric energy"... Vortical current... Fibonacci Curve... 12:56:16 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : piezoelectric 12:57:18 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : liquid crystals or liquid carrying nutrients of crystal form and that quantum exchange is exponential and flowing water in a natural course creates electrical energies... 13:06:43 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/301 42 U.S. Code § 301.Authorization of appropriations 13:25:21 From 550349 : it all feels like one big tangled web. 13:28:18 From interstellar : Stockholm syndrome 13:31:42 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : UPU - Universal Postal Union Regulations to the Convention Final Protocol https://www.upu.int/UPU/media/upu/files/UPU/aboutUpu/acts/nonPermanentActs/actNonPermanentRegulationsConventionFinalProtocolEn.pdf 13:32:57 From @Evie : Good afternoon, Ev1. Late but, I'm here. XOXO 13:36:16 From Trinity : What's poppin? @TheRichmang? 13:36:32 From Trinity : @Evie E!!! 13:42:24 From firstname.lastname@example.org : i finally got my postmaster to order the firm book 13:43:56 From 550349 : How do we watch past Zooms? 13:46:09 From Tabitha's iphone : I have had no luck with the post master ether they still sending my mail back 13:46:35 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://about.usps.com/forms/ps3623.pdf 13:46:46 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://about.usps.com/manuals/pm2/html/chap7.html 13:46:58 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://about.usps.com/postal-bulletin/2010/pb22292/html/updt_011.htm 13:47:26 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://about.usps.com/who/judicial/rules/rule964.htm#964.1 13:48:30 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : The Post Master is the trustee [b]etween United States and the States and ones-self is the beneficiary... 13:49:12 From Evie : https://uspsjoe.justware.com/justiceweb 13:49:24 From Mark Austin's iPad Pro : what's up Grigori? 13:51:25 From Grigori C : Ps-4806 13:53:31 From sophia-taniah : how do we make a homemade stamp? 13:53:32 From Evie : PS Form 3806 Registered Main Receipt 13:54:32 From sophia-taniah : what do you do to securitize? 13:55:23 From Evie : PS Form 3806 - About USPS homeabout.usps.com â€º forms â€º ps3806PDF 13:58:33 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : 20-003 Cancellation of customs duty and other fees 13:59:24 From 550349 : how do we watch past Zooms? 14:01:06 From @jusjoe : almighty god in ohio constitution.. 14:01:48 From @tcasad : https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/19/24.119 CFR § 24.1 - Collection of Customs duties, taxes, fees, interest, and other charges. 14:02:00 From @Trinity: CONSTITUTION - Georgia Secretary of State: To perpetuate the principles of free government, insure justice to all, preserve peace, promote the interest and happiness of the citizen and of the family, and transmit to posterity the enjoyment of liberty, we the people of Georgia, relying upon the protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish . 14:07:45 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/19/24.1 19 CFR § 24.1 - Collection of Customs duties, taxes, fees, interest, and other charges. 14:11:12 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : Search state-wide contracts - Texas... https://comptroller.texas.gov/purchasing/contracts/search.php 14:11:47 From 550349 : but I just want the paperwork to go away 14:15:13 From Mark Austin's iPad Pro : excellent info as always 14:16:55 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://plb.iowa.gov/sites/files/plb/documents/Trust%20Account%20Manual%202014_0.pdf 14:18:13 From 550349 : I was so stressed out about that ticket until the zoom the other day 14:20:43 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : My PayPal if any one wishes... 😉 14:20:51 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : https://www.paypal.com/paypalme/keithlittle1 14:21:01 From David Brister : OH HELL NAH! 14:22:20 From 550349 : so I can take my time to write to them about their ticket they tried to give to me 14:26:48 From El Hotepsekhemy Pero : Post Office Mortgages... LOL...! Wait till they meet up with me again!!! I have two silver dollars in my pocket - one for my-self and one for my companion...! 😉 https://www.postoffice.co.uk/mortgages/our-mortgages 14:27:09 From Joe Phone : lol 14:27:21 From 550349 : I wanna see some action 14:28:12 From Joe Phone : no one responded to me!
it would be advisable to read the information published on the following webarticle!!
Mixed Legal Jurisdictions and Clinical Legal Education: Latest Trends
19 Mar, 2016 GENERAL LAW0
Chapter 21Mixed Legal Jurisdictions and Clinical Legal Education: Latest Trends
There seems to be no consensus on what is meant by mixed legal systems or mixed jurisdictions (Palmer 2008). The classic approach is to limit mixed jurisdictions to private law systems based on a mixture of common law and civil law (Palmer 2008: 7). The modern, broader approach is to take a legal pluralistic approach that regards mixed jurisdictions as involving two or more different legal systems or traditions within a country’s legal system (Palmer 2008: 13). Given the trend toward the globalization of legal practice and legal education, particularly clinical legal education (see generally Bloch 2011: xxv), I intend to adopt the broader pluralistic approach for the purposes of this chapter.
According to the broader approach, the following mixed systems can be identified: (a) mixed systems of civil and common law;1 (b) mixed systems of civil and customary law;2 (c) mixed systems of civil, common, and customary law;3 (d) mixed systems of civil and Islamic law;4 (e) mixed systems of common and customary law;5 (f) mixed systems of common and Islamic law;6 (g) mixed systems of civil, Islamic, and customary law;7 (h) mixed systems of common, Islamic, and customary law;8 (i) mixed systems of common, Hindu, Islamic, and customary law;9 (j) mixed systems of civil, common, Indian, and Islamic law;10 (k) mixed systems of civil, common, Jewish, and Islamic law;11 (l) mixed systems of civil, common, Greek Orthodox, and Islamic law;12 and (m) mixed systems of Islamic law and customary law.13 However, the list is not closed, and other the types of mixed legal systems may exist.
Given the broad definition of mixed jurisdictions, this chapter deals with the following issues:
• What is clinical legal education?
• What types of clinical legal education programs exist?
• What types of skills are taught in clinical legal education programs?
• Why are interactive teaching methods used in clinical legal education programs?
• Which mixed jurisdiction countries have adopted clinical legal education?
• How are clinical legal education teaching methods affected if they are used in mixed jurisdiction law schools?
• How does the service component of clinical legal education work in mixed jurisdictions?
What Is Clinical Legal Education?
Clinical legal education is an interactive, reflective method of teaching practical legal skills to law students in a social justice context. During the process, students are confronted with real-life situations and play the role of lawyers to solve legal problems. They do so by interacting with clients or each other to identify and resolve legal issues, and they are subjected to critical review by their teachers or peers. Clinical legal education enables law students to play an active role in the learning process and to see how the law operates in real-life situations (Brayne, Duncan, and Grimes 1998: 1).
Clinical legal education provides law students with the tools that lay the foundations for their future careers as lawyers. Whereas traditional legal education tends to focus on the theoretical content of the law and to be knowledge based, clinical legal education goes further and provides law students with the necessary skills for legal practice. It also inculcates values such as the duty of lawyers to become involved in social justice issues in society and to display professional responsibility while practicing law (McQuoid-Mason and Palmer 2007: 10).
In most countries, the mission of clinical legal education is to teach law students practical legal skills in a social justice setting (compare with McQuoid-Mason 2000; see also McQuoid-Mason 2002). Social justice refers to the fair distribution of health, housing, welfare, education, and legal resources in society (compare with Bhagwati 1987; Honoré 1968: 68). Social justice is concerned with satisfying what poor people need rather than providing what they want. Clinical legal education programs play a valuable role in this respect.
What Types of Clinical Legal Education Programs Exist?
Clinical legal education programs vary greatly, depending on their educational objectives, the client target group, and the method of service delivery used. Examples of different service delivery components of clinical legal education programs include the following: (a) campus clinics,14 (b) off-campus clinics,15 (c) mobile clinics,16 (d) farm-out clinics or externships,17 (e) community clinics,18 (f) street law-type clinics (discussed later), (g) alternative dispute resolution clinics,19 (h) legislative drafting clinics,20 (i) clinics teaching legal study skills,21 (j) mixed clinics,22 and (k) simulated clinics.23 Again, the list is not closed.
The two most common types of law clinics used in clinical legal education programs are live client clinics and legal literacy or street law-type clinics.
Live Client Law Clinics
Clinical legal education programs involving live client law clinics include both academic and service components. The former require classroom attendance, and the latter require work in a law clinic.
In clinical legal education programs that are fully integrated into the law curriculum, law students are given academic credit for their work and assessments as in any other law course. The academic part of these programs involves students attending lectures or seminars and taking practical classes on the types of topics that are handled by the clinic during the service component in the law clinic. The emphasis is placed on skills training, and the students are evaluated according to the academic rules of the faculty.
In programs that are not fully integrated into the law curriculum, the faculty may require students to participate in the program on a “duly performed” basis. In such a program, academic credit is not given, but participating students have to complete the program satisfactorily to fulfill the graduation requirements of the faculty. These programs also usually include mandatory classroom work on skills training so that the students are able effectively to deal with the service component of the clinic.
Some programs are entirely voluntary and place much less emphasis on academic work. These programs tend to provide some training in the skills required in a law clinic but may not have a mandatory classroom component (see generally McQuoid-Mason and Palmer 2007: 10–11).
Traditional clinical legal education programs, particularly in developing countries, require students to service live clients under supervision in a law clinic. Very often these programs are held in general practice clinics that take walk-in clients.24 The students usually give advice to clients and act as clearinghouses for other agencies (compare with McQuoid-Mason 1985: 64).
In the more advanced clinics, law students may assist qualified lawyers to litigate. In some common law countries, such as the United States, and mixed legal systems, such as the Philippines, certain students may even be allowed to appear in court under “student practice rules” (compare with Walker 1980: 1101).25 In countries with civil law procedural rules that allow people other than lawyers to appear on behalf of litigants in civil cases, law students may also be able to represent clients in court.26
The challenge for live client clinical legal education programs is to balance the academic work required of students during their law degree with their duty to provide legal services to poor and marginalized clients in the law clinic (see generally McQuoid-Mason and Palmer 2007: 10–12).
Street Law-Type Clinics
Street law-type clinics are legal literacy programs conducted by law students, usually aimed at high school children, prisoners, and others (see generally McQuoid-Mason 1994). In street law programs, students are taught to teach the law using interactive learning methods. During the process, students are often asked to give advice about practical aspects of the law.
As in the case of live client clinics, street law students are subjected to critical review by their teachers and peers. Street law-type clinical programs also have academic and service components (compare with McQuoid-Mason 2000; see also McQuoid-Mason 2002).
Street law-type programs that are fully integrated into the law curriculum give law students academic credit for their work as in any other law course. The academic component of street law programs involves classroom work. In street law, students are trained to use different types of interactive learning methods to teach schoolchildren, prisoners, or other people about law, human rights, and democracy. Although the emphasis is placed on how to teach interactively, students are also taught lawyering skills such as preparing a mock trial and thinking on their feet. Where street law is a credit course, the students are given grades for their work.
Where street law programs are not fully integrated into the law curriculum, some faculties require students to participate in the program on a “duly performed” basis as part of community service projects. Although no academic credit is given for such courses, participating students are required to complete the program satisfactorily in order to graduate. Even though street law is not a credit course, students have to learn how to use interactive teaching methods.
Street law programs that are entirely voluntary place much less emphasis on academic work. These programs, however, still require the students to be trained in street law teaching skills (for example, in a one-off workshop) but may not have a mandatory regular classroom component (see generally McQuoid-Mason and Palmer 2007: 12–13).
The service component in street law programs requires students to go into high schools, prisons, or other organizations and to teach the target audiences about the law. To do so successfully, students have to be taught how to use interactive teaching methods (see generally McQuoid-Mason 1994).
In street law programs, students give limited legal advice. They usually refer more complicated inquiries to a traditional live client law clinic or recommend that the person seek legal advice from the state legal aid scheme or a private lawyer.
The challenge for students participating in street law-type clinics, as for those participating in live client clinics, is to balance their service work with their other academic work.
What Types of Skills Are Taught in Clinical Legal Education Programs?
Skills Taught in Programs with Live Client Clinics
The clinical legal education curriculum at law schools with live client clinics usually includes the following lawyering skills: (a) client interviewing, (b) client counseling, (c) trial advocacy, (d) negotiation, (e) critical thinking, (f) problem solving, (g) drafting, and (h) oral and written communication skills (McQuoid-Mason and Palmer 2007: 85–86). The majority of these skills are required irrespective of whether law students are studying in common law, civil law, religious law, or traditional customary law mixed legal systems. Even in jurisdictions that do not allow litigants to be represented by lawyers, law students can still be trained in ways to advise lay clients to represent themselves using lawyering skills.
Client interviewing and the taking of instructions are very important because they occur at the first point of contact between lawyers and clients. Students have to be taught how to put their clients at ease and how to build trust between themselves and their clients. They must learn how to make their clients feel free to tell them everything that is relevant. Client-centered interviewing techniques must be used to ensure that the lawyer has a clear understanding of the client’s needs and requirements (Alexander 1997: 12; Twist 1992: 20).
Client counseling involves the lawyer advising the client once he or she has helped the client identify what the issues are. Students need to be trained to take a client-centered approach to counseling. Clients should be given choices regarding the alternative procedures that could be followed and encouraged to make an informed decision on the course of conduct they would like to follow (Chapman 1993: 25). This approach applies whether or not clients will be represented by lawyers or are being advised by lawyers on how to represent themselves in a religious or customary law court.
Trial advocacy skills require law students to be trained in case analysis, trial preparation, and case presentation and questioning (for example, in common law systems, including opening statements, leading evidence in chief, cross-examination, reexamination, closing arguments, and so on). The skills taught will vary according to whether common law adversarial or civil law inquisitorial court procedures apply. Students need to practice the oral and written skills necessary to prepare for, and conduct, a case in court (see generally Palmer and McQuoid-Mason 2000: 32).
Negotiation is a skill that all lawyers require because most of the cases they deal with will involve attempting to reach an agreement about something. Students need to know that litigation is not the only way to settle disputes. They also need to understand the importance of principled negotiation (see generally Fisher and Ury 1981). Law students in clinic situations spend a great deal of time negotiating and need to understand the dynamics involved (see, for example, Lee and Fox 1994: 150–51). In specialist alternative dispute resolution clinics, students may also need to be trained in mediation techniques, including how to listen, what steps are involved in the mediation process, and how to draw up a mediation agreement.
Critical thinking requires students not simply to accept what the law is or what the courts or textbooks say the law is. Students should be encouraged to question legal principles and solutions offered and to think creatively about how they can help clients to solve problems using both legal and other remedies.
Problem solving is the essence of legal practice. When problem solving, students should be able to identify the issues, generate alternative solutions to the issues raised, and develop a plan of action. They should learn to be open to new information and ideas and to be flexible in their approach while dealing with problems (Iya 2000: 62, 67).
Students in law clinics may be required to write letters and draft documents, such as pleadings, contracts, wills, leases, and other legal documents. They need to be taught these skills before they attempt to undertake writing and drafting tasks on behalf of clients. The clinics need to imbue law students with a commitment to accurate and good drafting techniques (Barnhizer 1990).
Oral and Written Communication Skills
Communication is the lifeblood of legal practice. Law students need to be trained in both oral and written communication skills. These skills include use of words, thinking skills and logical reasoning, speaking skills, reading skills, and writing skills (Palmer, Crocker, and Kidd 2003: 3–84).
Skills Taught in Programs with Street Law-Type Clinics
Students in street law-type clinical legal education programs acquire the following necessary skills for lawyers: (a) writing skills, (b) communication skills, (c) ability to think on their feet, (d) trial advocacy skills, (d) critical thinking skills, (e) problem-solving skills, and (f) oral skills (McQuoid-Mason 2008: 36).
Street law students learn to develop their writing skills preparing lesson plans, writing reflective essays, and developing mock trial packages.
Street law students develop the important lawyering skill of being able to communicate the law and legal principles to laypeople in simple language.
Ability to Think on One’s Feet
Street law students have to learn to think on their feet when responding to questions from learners. This skill is crucial for lawyers, particularly those involved in court work, because they may have to answer questions from the bench.
Trial Advocacy Skills
Street law students learn trial advocacy skills when training their target audiences to prepare for mock trials by teaching them about court procedures, the rules of evidence, ways to question the accused and witnesses, and ways to make closing arguments. Teaching others is one of the best methods of learning.
Critical Thinking Skills
Street law students learn about social justice and the public’s perceptions of the law and the legal system. Doing so enables the students to think critically about the legal system and how it operates in practice.
Street law students are continually faced with the types of practical problems experienced by their target audiences. This challenge gives students an opportunity to develop their analytical skills to identify and solve legal problems.
While using interactive teaching methods to conduct community legal education programs, street law students develop confidence in public speaking and the ability to interact with school learners and the community in general.
Why Are Interactive Teaching Methods Used in Clinical Legal Education Programs?
Unlike traditional methods of teaching the law, clinical legal education is student-centered rather than lecturer-centered. To achieve a student-centered experience, clinics use a number of interactive methods to train students in legal skills and to sensitize them to social justice issues.
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